The previous Blog article talked about how the role of the early childhood educator/provider has changed over the decades. This is in part due to the large number of children in childcare programs and the increased requirement for these children to be ready for school. In order to provide the education and care that a child needs, it is important to understand and utilize an early childhood curriculum that will address the needs of the children in care. Part of this blog post is a reprint from July 2017, but it is still current and important in November 2020!
In early childhood education and care, the word curriculum means different things to different people. It can mean a philosophy, a program, an approach, or a set of specific materials and activities that are purchased as a boxed curriculum.
Here are a couple examples of commonly understood definitions:
· “The curriculum consists of the knowledge and skills to be acquired in the educational program as well as the plans for experiences through which children’s learning will take place.” Developmentally Appropriate Practice in Early Childhood Programs, NAEYC (2009) p. 42.
· “Curriculum – the knowledge and skills teachers are expected to teach and children are expected to learn, and the plans for experiences through which learning will take place.” The Intentional Teacher by Ann Epstein (2007) p. 5.
Although there are many definitions for curriculum, they all include this concept:
“goals and plans for children to acquire skills and knowledge through activities, experiences and opportunities”
Many definitions also include direct teaching or facilitation of learning by the educator/provider. With this in mind, all philosophies, programs, approaches, or specific materials and activities can provide the curriculum foundation necessary for high quality care. It is the educator/provider’s responsibility to make sure the daily programming is based on early learning standards and addresses the individual needs of each child
Whole Day, Whole Child Programming
Children are eager to learn and experience new things. Their job all day, every day is to take in new learning. Early childhood educators and providers know that children learn when all of the developmental domains are supported. Educators/providers that provide activities and experiences that integrate all of the domains are addressing the needs of the ‘whole child.’
The educator/provider’s job is to plan for and recognize the learning that is taking place. Providing a variety of experiences and opportunities, that are accessed through different delivery systems such as free choice, small group/large group activities, child/teacher directed, learning centers/stations etc., will address the ‘whole day’ approach as well as meet the differing needs of children.
Curriculum or programming for early childhood education and care begins the moment the child walks through the door. Having daily routines, providing self-help learning and life-skill development, structured and non-structured activities are all part of a child’s day. Educators/providers that understand this are able to provide an environment and activities where learning happens all day.
Here are some specific examples of learning that happens in childcare problems, but are not typically thought of as learning activities. Each example includes the Domain of Development.
· A child arrives and says hi to the educators/providers, goes over to the cubby area and hangs up his jacket.
Domain: Social and Emotional Development – Self-Concept
· Next, he heads into the playroom to find his friends and easily finds some cars to play with on the mat next to his friends.
Domain: Approaches to Learning – Imagination and Invention
· When it’s time for group, the educators/providers asks all the children to put their cars, blocks and other small pieces away in the bins that are labeled with pictures and words.
Domain: Language and Literacy – Listening
· During group time, the educator/provider hands out musical instruments to play while singing favorite group songs
Domain: Creativity & the Arts – Creating
· After a story, singing, and calendar time, the educators/providers asks the children to wash their hands and get ready for snack.
Domain: Physical and Motor Development – Physical Health and Well-Being
· Each child is asked to get one paper plate, one napkin, and one cup to put on their placement.
Domain: Cognitive Development – Mathematical and Logical Thinking
Did this surprise you to see all of the domains are covered? It’s often thought that learning happens only during activities where a educators/providers is leading and directing an activity. In reality, children are always learning and it’s important to recognize that all parts of the early childcare program provide learning experiences for all developmental domains.
Over the next few weeks, the ELS Blog will highlight each of the specific Domains of Development, and what it looks like in a childcare program.